The operational tasks (operation, maintenance, etc.) can be considered as similar for a wide range of tunnels, even of the internal organisation of entities responsible may be very different depending on the country, and where different tasks can be either be performed by the operator or delivered by other bodies.
In some cases, a single organisation can cater for all the personnel required.
In other cases, the operational tasks may be shared by several public and private organisations. The tunnel owner or the road administration may for example entrust different public or private organizations to take charge of the tunnel construction and operation as a whole and/or specific operational tasks (e.g. the maintenance tasks can be handed out to contractors).
The measures planned for managing incidents may be different, depending on national regulations and also according to local requirements specific to each tunnel. The organization of the operator and the traffic police can consequently be different, depending on the local context.
Even though the context varies greatly from one country to another, very generally, the structure of the operation is organised into three principal groups:
In a few cases, emergency rescue services are also part of the operating staff.
The Technical Report 2007R04 defines in its chapter 4 "Operating staff: tasks and facilities" the organisation of operation in greater detail.